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AIRO publishes articles written in either Portuguese or English but English is preferred. The title, abstract and figure/table captions should be written in both English and Portuguese. The editorial board reserves the right to request authors to translate the article into English.

Articles in revision process should be returned with the required changes not after the deadline set by editorial board. Before being published, authors will receive the proofs of the article and at this stage only typographic corrections will be accepted. 

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Manuscripts should be created in a text processor (Word), with A4 format, double line spacing and ample side margins. Pages and lines should be numbered consecutively. The following sections should be included: Title, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References, Tables, Figure captions and Figures. Manuscripts should not exceed 10000 words.



Short notes must follow the same format rules of standard papers but should not exceed 3500 words (including the abstract, acknowledgements, references and legends of tables and figures).

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Should include a short and concise title at the top of the page followed by the name of the authors, their affiliations and the e-mail of the corresponding author. It should also include a running title with no more than 15 words. Both titles should be in Portuguese and English.



Should inform the reader about the scope of the study, methodology, results and conclusions. Should be as precise as possible, avoiding vague sentences (e.g. "results are discussed"). Do not exceed 300 words.



The manuscript should include a maximum of 5 key-words listed in alphabetic order.



Portuguese common names for species should conform to the publication Costa, H., A. Araújo, J.C. Farinha, M.C. Poças & A.M. Machado (2000) – Nomes Portugueses das Aves do Paleárctico Ocidental, Assírio & Alvim, Lisboa. English common names should conform to a well established reference. When a species is mentioned for the first time in the abstract and in the body of text, both the common and scientific names should be used. The same rule applies to other animal groups and plants whenever there are well established common names; otherwise scientific names are enough. The first letter of Portuguese common names should be capitalized (e.g. Chapim-azul) while in English Common Names should capitalize the 1st letter in each word (e.g. Black-winged Stilt). All genus and species scientific names should be italicized.



In accordance with the International System of Units (SI).



Details of statistical analysis to be included are type of test, value of the test statistic, probability level, degrees of freedom and sample size. All statistical test symbols should be italicized (                                            ). A post-fix to the test statistic symbol is preferred to present the degrees of freedom (                               ).



Should be brief and polite.



Only those cited in the text, sorted alphabetically and in accordance with the given examples. Reference to unpublished data should be made only in the text as “pers. comm.” (“com. pess.” In Portuguese) or “unpubl. data” (“dados não publicados” in Portuguese).


Scientific papers:

Lourenço, P.M., Silva, A., Santos, C.D., Miranda, A.C., Granadeiro, J.P. & Palmeirim, J.M. 2008. The energetic importance of night foraging for waders wintering in a temperate estuary. Acta Oecologica 34: 122-129.


Costa, H., Santos, B., Leitão, D. & Catry, P. 1993. Contribuição para o conhecimento das populações de Tartaranhão-ruivo-dos paúis Circus aeruginosus nos estuários do Tejo e do Sado. Airo 4: 1-6.



Bibby, C.J., Burgess, N.D. & Hill, D.A 1992. Bird Census Techniques. Academic Press, London.


Chapters in books and proceedings:

Finlayson, J.C. 1998. The role of Iberian Peninsula in the Paleartic-African migration system: ecological, evolutionary, geographical and historical considerations at varying spatial and temporal scales. In: Costa, L.T., Costa, H., Araújo, M. & Silva, M. (eds) Simpósio sobre aves migradoras na Península Ibérica. Sociedade Portuguesa para o Estudo das Aves e Universidade de Évora, Évora, pp.33-40.


Thesis: Moreira, F. 1995. A utilização das zonas entre marés do estuário do Tejo por aves aquáticas e suas implicações para os fluxos de energia na teia trófica estuarina. PhD thesis. University of Lisbon, Lisbon.



References should be cited in accordance to the following examples: Lopes (1995), Lopes & Araújo (2000), Lopes et al. (2002), (Lopes 1995, Lopes & Araújo 2000, Lopes et al. 2002).



Place one table per page with the caption above it (in English and Portuguese) and any comments below it. Make simple tables that can be interpreted on their own, without the main text. The tables' formatting can be copied from previous Airo issues. Use 0 for value zero and the symbol – for missing values. 



Captions of figures should be placed in one page, sequentially. Captions should be written in Portuguese and English.



Place one figure per page, with the respective number on the top of the page. Make simple figures that can be interpreted on their own, without the main text. It is advisable to check Airo's previous issues to see which symbols and fills are more easily reproduced. Colours should be used only if necessary. Final figures should be also made available in common digital formats (e.g. tiff, jpg, eps). 


Comprises additional relevant appendices, figures and tables. It is an opportunity to elaborate and illustrate your argument further for the interested reader or to include additional results that support the main results given in the main manuscript. All supporting information should be included in a single Word file, named “Supporting_Information”. The first page should include the tittle of the article and the names of the authors. Appendices, tables and figures should be labeled as Appendice S1, Table S1, Figure S1, etc, and should follow the same general guidelines of those in the manuscript (including a self-explanatory legend). All supporting information should be referred in the text as e.g. “Supporting information, Table S1”.

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